Saturday, 30 November 2013


Maithili language

Maithili (/ˈmaɪtɨli/;[2] मैथिली, মৈথিলী, Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in eastern Nepal and North Bihar of India 
 It is presently written with the Devanagari script despite having its own Mithilakshar script
In 2003, Maithili was included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution, which allows the language to be used in education, government, and other official contexts.

Geographic distribution

Maithili is spoken in Bihar up to the Purnia, Munger and Bhagalpur districts parts of southeast Nepal. The cultural and linguistic centers are the towns of Madhubani and Darbhanga. Native speakers also reside in Delhi, Calcutta and Mumbai.[1] Maithili is also spoken in Sitamarhi, Saharsa, Madhepuraand Supaul.
In Nepal, Maithili is spoken mainly in the Outer Terai districts of the Janakpur Zone such as Sarlahi, Mahottari and Dhanusa Districts, in the Sunsari District of the Koshi Zone, and in the Siraha and Saptari Districts of the Sagarmatha Zone. Janakpur is an important religious centre.


The first grammar of Maithili was written in 1880–81. A. F. Rudolf Hoernle published a grammar of the eastern Hindi from London in 1880 and compared with the other Gaudian languages. In this grammar, Dr. Hoernle recognized Maithili as a dialect distinct from Hindi. He was able to give some specimens of its grammatical forms, but no published materials were then available. The mis-classification by early linguists led to language politics in respect of Maithili.[3] Beames (1872/reprint 1966: 84-85) considered Maithili as a dialect of Bengali.[4] Grierson, however, adopted the notional term "Bihari" for the group of languages (Angika,Bajjika,Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili) including Maithili used in Bihar. 
Maithili is derived from Avahattha, the Maithil Apabhramsha, which is derived from Magadhi Apbhramsha.


·         Central Maithili is the standard form, in which books are written. Central Maithili is spoken in the districts of Darbhanga divisionKosi Division.
·         Khortha dialect
·         Vajjika dialect
·         Tharuwat, spoken exclusively in Nepal
·         Jolaha Maithili, not a dialect but a variety spoken by Muslims of Mithila. It has no specific region.


The name Maithili is derived from the word Mithila, an ancient kingdom of which King Janaka was the ruler (See Ramayana). Maithili is also one of the names of Sita, the wife of King Rama and daughter of King Janaka. Scholars in Mithila used Sanskrit for their literary work and Maithili was the language of the common folk (Abahatta). The earliest work in Maithili appears to be Varna(n) Ratnakar by Jyotirishwar Thakur dated about 1324.
With the fall of Pala rule, disappearance of Buddhism, establishment of karnāta kings and patronage of Maithili under Harasimhadeva (1226–1324) of karnāta dynasty, Jyotirisvara Thakur (1280–1340) wrote a unique work Varnaratnākara in pure Maithili prose, the earliest specimen of prose available in any Modern Indo-Aryan language.
In 1324, Ghyasuddin Tughluq, the emperor of Delhi invaded Mithila, defeated Harasimhadeva, entrusted Mithila to his family Priest Kameshvar Jha, a Maithil Brahmin of the Oinvar family but disturbed era did not produce any literature in Maithili until Vidyapati Thakur (1360 to 1450), who was an epoch making poet under the patronage of king Shiva Simha and his queen Lakhima Devi. He produced over a thousand immortal songs in Maithili on the theme of erotic sports of Radha and Krishna and the domestic life of Shiva and Parvatias well as on the subject of suffering of migrant labourers of Morang and their families; besides he wrote a number of treaties in Sanskrit on various subjects. His love-songs spread far and wide in no time and enchanted saints, poets and youth in general. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu saw divine light of love behind these songs, and soon these songs became themes of Vaisnava sect of Bengal. Rabindranath Tagore, out of curiosity, imitated these songs under the pseudonym Bhanusimha. Vidyapati influenced the religious literature of Asama, Banga and Utkala.
After the invasion of Mithila by the Sultan of Johnpur, Delhi, and the disappearance of Shivasimha in 1429, Onibar rule grew weaker and the literary activity shifted to present Nepal.
The earliest reference to Maithili or Tirhutiya is in Amaduzzi's preface to Beligatti's Alphabetum Brammhanicum, published in 1771. This contains a list of Indian languages amongst which is 'Tourutiana.' Colebrooke's essay on the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages, written in 1801, was the first to describe Maithili as a distinct dialect.
Many devotional songs were written by vaisnava saints, including in the mid-17th century, Vidyapati and Govindadas. mapati Upadhyaya wrote a drama entitled pārijātaharaṇa in Maithili. A number of professional troupes, mostly from dalit classes known as Kirtanias, the singers of bhajan or devotional songs, started to perform this drama in public gatherings and the courts of the nobles. Lochana (c. 1575 – c. 1660) wrote Rāgatarangni, a significant treatise on the science of music, describing the rāgas, tālas and lyrics prevalent in Mithila.
The Malla dynasty's mother tongue was Maithili, which spread far and wide throughout Nepal from the 16th to the 17th century.[citation needed] During this period, at least 70 Maithili dramas were produced. In the drama Harishchandranrityam by Siddhinarayanadeva (1620–57), some characters speak pure colloquial Maithili, while others speak Bengali, Sanskrit or Prakrit. The Nepaltradition may be linked with the Ankiya Nāta in Assam and Jatra in Odisha.[citation needed]
After the demise of Maheshwar Singh, the ruler of Darbhanga Raj, in 1860, the Raj was taken over by the British Government as regent. The return of the Darbhanga Raj to his successor, Maharaj Lakshmishvar Singh, in 1898. But these happenings has nothing to do with the use of Maithili Language, as the Zamindari Raj has lackadaisical approach towards Maithili Language. The use of Maithili language was revived, however, through personal efforts of MM Parameshvar Mishra, Chanda Jha, Munshi Raghunandan Das and others.
Publication of Maithil Hita Sadhana (1905), Mithila Moda (1906), and Mithila Mihir (1908), further encouraged writers. The first social organization, Maithil Mahasabha was established in 1910 for the development of Mithila and Maithili, but it blocked its membership for people outside from the Maithil Brahmin and Karna Kayastha castes. Maithil Mahasabha campaigned for the official recognition of Maithili as a regional language. Calcutta University recognized Maithili in 1917, and other universities followed suit. Babu Bhola Lal Das also wrote Maithili Grammar (Maithili Vyakaran"). He edited a book "Gadyakusumanjali" and edited a journal "Maithili".
In 1965, Maithili was officially accepted by Sahitya Academy, an organization dedicated to the promotion of Indian literature. In 2003 Maithili was recognized on the VIII schedule of the Indian Constitution as a major Indian language; Maithili is now one of the 22 national languages of India.
The publishing of Maithili books in Mithilakshar script was started by Acharya Ramlochan Saran.

Writing system

Maithili was traditionally written in the Maithili script (also known by the names Tirhuta, i.e., Mithilakshar) and Kaithi script. The ISO of Unicode Technical Committee has approved the encoding of Kaithi and Tirhuta scripts. Nowadays, Devanagari script is most commonly used. An effort is underway to preserve the Maithili script and to develop it for use in digital media by encoding the script in the Unicode standard, for which proposals have been submitted by Sh. Anshuman Pandey (now it has been approved by the ISO, the Unicode Technical Committee).


The most famous literary figure in Maithili is the poet Vidyapati (1350–1450), who wrote his poems in the language of the people, i.e., Maithili, at a time when state's official language used to beSanskrit and Sanskrit was still being used as a literary language. The use of Maithili, instead of Sanskrit, in literature became more common after Vidyapati.
The main characteristics of Magadhi Prakrit is to mutate 'r' into 's', the 'n' for n, of 'j' for 'y', of 'b' for 'y' In the edicts of Ashoka the change of 'r' to 'h' is established. Mahavir and Buddha delivered their sermons in the eastern languages. The secular use of language came mainly from the east as will be evident from the Prakritpainglam, a comprehensive work on Prakrit and Apabhramsa-Avahatta poetry. Jyotirishwar mentions Lorika. Vachaspati II in his Tattvachintamani and Vidyapati in his Danavakyavali have profusely used typical Maithili words of daily use. The Maithili script, Mithilakshara or Tirhuta as it is popularly known, is of a great antiquity.. The Lalitavistara mentions the Vaidehi script. Early in the latter half of the seventh century A. D., we find a marked change in the north-eastern alphabet and the inscriptions of Adityasena exhibit this change for the first time and hence forward the eastern variety develops by itself and becomes the Maithili script—a script which ultimately comes into use in Assam, Bengal and Nepal. The earliest recorded epigraphic evidence of the script is to be found in the Mandar Hill Stone inscriptions of Adityasena (c. 7th century A. D.), now fixed in the Baidyanath temple, Deoghar.[12]
The Kamrupa dialect was originally a variety of eastern Maithili and it was, no doubt, the spoken Aryan language throughout the kingdom which then included the whole of Assam valley and whole of North Bengal with the addition of the district of Purnea. The language of the Buddhist Dohas is described as belonging to the mixed Maithili—Kamrupi language.[13]

Early Maithili Literature (ca. 700–1350 AD)

The period was of ballads, songs, and dohas. Some important Maithili writers of this era were:
·         Kavi Kokil Pre-Jyotirishwar Vidyapati
·         Jyotirishwar Thakur (1290–1350) whose 'Varnartnakar' is the first prose and encyclopedia in any north Indian language

Middle Maithili Literature (ca. 1350–1830 AD)

The period was of theatrical writings. Some important Maithili writers of this era were:
·         Vidyapati (1350–1450)
·         Srimanta Sankardeva (1449–1568)
·         Govindadas

Modern Maithili Literature (1830 AD to date)

Modern Maithili came into its own after Sir George Abraham Grierson, an Irish linguist and civil servant, tirelessly researched Maithili folklore and transcribed its grammar. Paul R. Brass wrote that "Grierson judged that Maithili and its dialects could fairly be characterized as the language of the entire population of Darbhanga and Madhubani districts".[14] In April 2010 a translation of the New Testament into Maithili was published by the Bible Society of India under joint copyright with Wycliffe Bible Translators.
The development of Maithili in modern era was due to various magazines and journals. Some important writers of this era are:
·         Acharya Ramlochan Saran (1889–1971)
·         Baldev Mishra (1890–1975)[15]
·         Surendra Jha 'Suman' (1910–2002) represented Maithili in the Sahitya Akademi
·         Radha Krishna Choudhary (1921–1985)
·         Sudhanshu Shekhar Chaudhary (1920–1990) authored plays in Maithili and received the Sahitya Akademi Honour in 1981.
·         Jaykant Mishra (20 December 1922 – 3 February 2009) represented Maithili in the Sahitya Akademi
·         Jata Shankar Das (1923–2004)
·         Rajkamal Chaudhary (1929–1967)
·         Binod Bihari Verma (1937–2003)
·         Gajendra Thakur (1971– )
·         Dr Raman Jha (1957– )

चलो जन्तर-मन्तर पर! ५ दिसम्बर, २०१३

चलो जन्तर-मन्तर पर! 

५ दिसम्बर, २०१३   

      (जन्तर-मन्तरपर विशाल धरना प्रदर्शन - मिथिला राज्यके समर्थनमें - संसदमें रखे गये बिलपर सकारात्मक बहसके लिये राजनीतिक शक्तियोंसे सामूहिक अनुरोध के लिये।)

वैसे तो मिथिला राज्यका माँग स्वतंत्रता पूर्वसे ही किया जा रहा है, स्वतंत्रता उपरान्त भी यह माँग देशकी प्रथम संविधान सभाके सत्रोंसे लेकर राज्य पुनर्गठन आयोग तक मंथनका विषय बननेके बावजूद राजनीतिपूर्वक किसी न किसी बहानेमे नकारा गया और मैथिली सहित मिथिलाके भविष्यको पहचानविहीनताकी रोगसे आक्रान्त किया गया जो निसंदेह किसी गणतंत्रात्मक प्रजातांत्रीक मुल्कके सर्वथा-हितमे नहीं हो सकता है। फलस्वरूप अब मिथिलाका वो स्वर्णिम समय दुबारा भारतको शास्त्र-महाशास्त्रके साथ आध्यात्मिक दर्शनकी पराकाष्ठापर पहुँचा सके, हाँ आज इतना तो जरुर है कि मिथिलाके मिट्टी और पानीसे सींचित व्यक्तित्व न केवल राष्ट्रमे बल्कि समूचे ग्लोबपर अपनी उपस्थिति ऊपरसे नीचेतक हर पद व स्थानपर महिमामंडित करते हैं, लेकिन मूलसे बिपरीत आज सामुदायिक कल्याण निमित्त नहीं होता - बस व्यक्तिगत विकास केवल लक्ष्य बनकर पहचानविहीनताके रोगसे मिथिला-संस्कृति विलोपान्मुख बनते जा रहा है। ऐसेमें यदि अब स्वतंत्रताका लगभग ७ दशक बीतने लगनेपर भी मिथिलाको स्वराज्यसे संवैधानिक सम्मान नहीं दिया गया तो मिथिलाका मरणके साथ भारतकी एक विलक्षण संस्कृतिका खात्मा तय है।

           भारतमे विभिन्न नये राज्य बनानेकी परिकल्पना आज भी निरंतर चर्चामें रहता ही है। संसदसे सडकतक इस विषयपर नित्य विरोधसभा और संघर्ष कर रही है यहाँकी जनता, खास करके जिनका पहचान समाप्तिकी दिशामे बढ रहा है और उपनिवेशी पहचानकी बोझसे अधिकारसंपन्नताकी जगह विपन्नता प्रवेश पा रहा है वहाँपर नये राज्योंकी सृजना अनिवार्य प्रतीत होता है। बिहार अन्तर्गत मिथिला हर तरहसे पिछड गया, ना बाढसे मुक्ति मिल सका, ना पूर्वाधारमें किसी तरहका विकास, ना उद्योग, ना शिक्षा, ना कृषिमें क्रान्ति या आत्मनिर्भरता, ना भूसंरक्षण या विकास, ना जल-प्रबंधन और ना ही किसी तरहका लोक-संस्कृतिकी संवर्धन वा प्रवर्धन हुआ। बस नामके लिये सिर्फ मिथिलादेश अब मिथिलाँचल जैसा संकीर्ण भौगोलिक सांकेतिक नामसे बचा हुआ है। राजनीति और राजनेताके लिये मिथिलाका पिछडापण मुद्दा तो बना हुआ है लेकिन वो सारा केवल कमीशनखोरी, दलाली, ठीकेदारी, लूट-खसोट और अपनी राजनैतिक लक्ष्यतक पहुँचने भर के लिये। मिथिला भारतीय गणतंत्रमें मानो दूधकट्टू संतान जैसा एक विचित्र पहचान 'बिहारी' पकडकर मैथिली जैसे सुमधुर भाषासे नितान्त दूर 'बिहारी-हिन्दी'की भँवरमें फँसकर रह गया है।

                जिस बलसे मिथिला कभी मिथिलादेश कहा जाता रहा, जिस तपसे जहाँकी धरासे साक्षात् जगज्जननी स्वयं सिया धियारूपमे अवतार लीं, जहाँ राजनीति, न्याय, सांख्य, तंत्र, मिमांसा, रत्नाकर आदि सदा हवामें ही घुला रहा... उस मिथिलाको पुनर्जीवन प्रदान करने के लिये स्वराज्य देना भारतीय गणतंत्रकी मानवृद्धि जैसा होगा ‍- अत: मिथिला राज्यकी माँगवाली विधेयक काफी अरसेके बाद फिरसे भारतीय संसदमें बहसके लिये आ रही है। किसी एक नेता या किसी खास दलका प्रयास भले इसके लिये ज्यादा महत्त्वपूर्ण हो, लेकिन जरुरत तो सभी पक्षों और राष्ट्रीय सहमतिका है जो इस माँगकी गंभीरताको समझते हुए वगैर किसी तरहका विद्वेषी और विभेदकारी आपसी फूट-फूटानेवाली राजनीति किये न्यायपूर्ण ढंगसे मिथिला राज्यको संविधान द्वारा मान्यता प्रदान करे। इसमें कहीं दो मत नहीं है कि नेतृत्वकी भूमिकामें जितने भी संस्था, व्यक्ति, समूह, आदि भले हैं, पर मुद्दा तो एकमात्र 'मिथिला राज्य' ही है और इसके लिये एकजुटता प्रदर्शनके समयमें हम सब मात्र मिथिला राज्यका समर्थक भर हैं और मिथिलाकी गूम हो रही अस्मिताकी संरक्षणके लिये, मिथिलाकी चौतरफा विकासके लिये, मिथिलाकी खत्म हो रही लोक-संस्कृति और लोक-पलायनको नियंत्रित रखने के लिये अपनी उपस्थिति जरुर दिल्लीके जन्तर-मन्तरपर और भी अधिक लोगोंको समेटते हुए जरुर दें। तारीख ५ दिसम्बर, समय १० बजेसे, स्थान जन्तर-मन्तर, संसद मार्ग, नयी दिल्ली!

मिथिलावासी एक हो! एक हो!! एक हो!!

एकमात्र संकल्प ध्यानमे!
मिथिला राज्य हो संविधानमे!!

भीख नहि अधिकार चाही!
हमरा मिथिला राज्य चाही!!

जय मिथिला! जय जय मिथिला!!

Friday, 29 November 2013

हरिश रावत जि मांफि मंगला...सब संगठन के प्रतिनिधि के सामने मांफि मंगला

हरिश रावत जि मांफि मंगला...सब संगठन के प्रतिनिधि के सामने मांफि मंगला. Rajesh Jha - आई हरीश रावत सीता मैया पर देल बयान के खंडन केला। मिथिला राज्य निर्माण सेना , अखिल भारतीय मिथिला संघ,जन जागृति मंच और अन्य सहयोगी मैथिल संस्था के प्रतिनिधी के सामने खंडन केला। संगही मिथिला राज्य मांग के समर्थन केला और मिरानिसे के द्वारा कखनो भी कार्यक्रम केला पर आबय के सहमति सेहो देला। ओ पहिनेही मीडिया के अपन बयान के खंडन के कॉपी भेज देने छला है

Wednesday, 27 November 2013

ककरा कहबई के सुनतै सब लागई बहिर अकान सन

ककरा कहबई के सुनतै, सब लागई बहिर अकान सन
आब बुझैया भारतक हालत, भ गेल छै कंगाल सन
चुनाव लड़ई लेल ठाढो होई छै, सबटा चोर उच्चका सन
ककरा राखु, ककरा छोरु, विधिना भ गेल वाम सन
मोन त होईया, तेना हटाबी, मडुआ सन किछु पटुआ सन
ककरा कहबई के सुनतै, सब लागई बहिर अकान सन

स्वतंत्रत भेला पर देश ख़ुशी भेल, ख़ुशी होयते फेर दुखी भेल
नहि बितल किछुओ दिन, देश दू भाग तत्क्षण बटी गेल
बटिते देरी खून खारापा, कतेक मरि गेल कतेक कटी गेल
ख़ुशी के आँशु दुखी में बटी गेल, कतेक घर के नामोनिशान जे मिटी गेल
देश के किछु भागक हालत, भ गेल छल श्मशान सन
ककरा कहबई के सुनतै, सब लागई बहिर अकान सन

माछ भात के बात त छोडू, सागक नै अछि कोनो जोगार
देशक हालत एहन अछि केने, मंहगी चढ़ल अछि बीचे कपार
बाज़ार आ हाटक नामे सुनि क, पकडैत छि अपन कपार
नेता आ राजनेता सब के, नै छनि किनको एकर विचार
इ सब सोची माथ काज नै करैया, भ गेल छि सुन्न अकान सन 
ककरा कहबई के सुनतै, सब लागई बहिर अकान सन

पहिले जे छल देशक हितगर, नाम ओकर छल सेनानी
आब कियो छथि एही तरहक ? जकर होई कियो दीवानी
हिनकर सबहक हालत देखि क, मोन करैया खूब कानी
अपना लेल इ सब खूब कमेला, जनता चाहे भरै पानी
आब कहु मोन केहन लगैया ? लगैया उजरल बांग सन
ककरा कहबई के सुनतै, सब लागई बहिर अकान सन
संजय कुमार झा "नागदह"

दिनांक : ०४/०९/२०१३